10p flirt adult
At the group level, medial frontal damage was overall associated with significantly reduced effects of reward on invigorating saccadic velocity and autonomic (pupil) responses compared to age-matched, healthy controls.
Lesion correlations with clinical apathy suggested that the apathy associated with prefrontal damage is in fact reduced by damage at those coordinates.All these might be consequences of a more pervasive disorder of , as manifest by abnormal and self-inconsistent preferences ( Fellows and Farah, 2007 ; Koenigs and Tranel, 2008).But surprisingly, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study that has directly examined the effect of vm PFC lesions on in humans.Specifically, vm PFC lesions can lead to suboptimal or higher betting in risk-related decisions (Clark et al., 2008; Levens et al., 2014 ; Studer et al., 2015), coupled with altered autonomic anticipatory responses ().vm PFC patients also exhibit altered reversal learning of stimulus-reward associations (Fellows and Farah, 2003; Hornak et al., 2004 ; Tsuchida et al., 2010).We used this paradigm in patients with focal damage in the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) territory, following subarachnoid haemorrhage.
The task is a simplified variant of the oculomotor capture paradigm (Theeuwes et al., 1998 ; Van der Stigchel et al., 2012), in which participants have to exert a degree of cognitive control.
If vm PFC is responsible for computing value, then damage to this region might be expected to reduce the effect of reward on motivated behaviour.
On the other hand, if its role were regulatory or modulatory, then damage to this region might paradoxically potentiate some of reward's direct effects.
Importantly, the question remains open as to whether reward sensitivity would be blunted or increased by damage to this region.
To better characterise effects of lesions, cognitive tasks that attempt to tap specific processes have been employed, e.g., to demonstrate disturbed decision-making following vm PFC lesions (Fellows and Farah, 2005; Gläscher et al., 2012 ; Levens et al., 2014), though even these have been inconsistent ().
Malfunctioning of the brain's value computation system has been proposed to underlie two distinct but related syndromes: depression and apathy (Alguacil and González-Martín, 2015; Eshel and Roiser, 2010; Hall et al., 2014; Perry and Kramer, 2015; Rochat et al., 2013; Sinha et al., 2013 ; Whitton et al., 2015).