Ancient egyptian dating system
Further, in return for their services, the rulers of the Old Kingdom had exempted the priesthood from taxation in perpetuity.
Oil, beer, ceramics, livestock, and every other kind of commodity would be taxed, but the most important was the tax on grain.In the modern day, only the Great Pyramid of Khufu and those of Khafre and Menkaure rise from the Giza plateau along with the Great Sphinx and a number of lesser monuments, but in its day, each pyramid at Giza had its own pyramid complex, there was housing for the workers, markets, separate temples, workshops; and all of these cost a great deal of money.Further, once the pyramids, complexes, and temples were completed, staff had to be hired to maintain them and preside over the rituals which would ensure the eternal life of the king in the world to come.Not only did they use grain in trade but stored it in surplus to feed the people in years of poor harvest and to distribute to communities which might suffer some misfortune.Scholar Edward Bleiberg explains how the process worked: The ancient Egyptian government met its needs for food, raw materials, manufactured goods, and labor through taxation and conscription.The gods of ancient Egypt freely gave their bounty to the people who worked the land, but this did not exempt those farmers from paying taxes on that bounty to the government.
Egypt was a cashless society until the Persian Period (c.
This was the system the central government operated on in collecting taxes.
Scholar Andre Dollinger writes: In a barter economy, the simplest way to exact taxes is by seizing part of the produce, merchandise, or property.
This period ended when prince Mentuhotep II of Thebes (c.
2061-2010 BCE) united the country under his rule and initiated the era of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2040-1782 BCE).
A little later, in the Second Dynasty, the court explicitly recognized the actuarial potential of the Following of Horus.