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Chemical workings of carbon dating

RNA strands are created using DNA strands as a template in a process called transcription.

In contrast prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) store their DNA only in the cytoplasm.The nucleotide contains both a segment of the backbone of the molecule (which holds the chain together) and a nucleobase (which interacts with the other DNA strand in the helix).A nucleobase linked to a sugar is called a nucleoside and a base linked to a sugar and one or more phosphate groups is called a nucleotide.The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base pairing rules (A with T and C with G), with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA.The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 10 DNA stores biological information.DNA is used by researchers as a molecular tool to explore physical laws and theories, such as the ergodic theorem and the theory of elasticity.

The unique material properties of DNA have made it an attractive molecule for material scientists and engineers interested in micro- and nano-fabrication.

Within the eukaryotic chromosomes, chromatin proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA.

These compact structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed.

The sugars are joined together by phosphate groups that form phosphodiester bonds between the third and fifth carbon atoms of adjacent sugar rings.

These asymmetric bonds mean a strand of DNA has a direction.

Within eukaryotic cells DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes.