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This controversy was settled with a coin toss which Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake.The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society.
Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River.Though much of downtown Portland is relatively flat, the foothills of the Tualatin Mountains, more commonly referred to locally as the "West Hills", pierce through the northwest and southwest reaches of the city. Three of downtown's most heavily utilized bridges are more than 100 years old and are designated historic landmarks: Hawthorne Bridge (1910), Steel Bridge (1912), and Broadway Bridge (1913).Council Crest Park, the tallest point within city limits, is located in the West Hills and rises to an elevation of 1,073 feet. Tabor, an extinct volcanic cinder cone, which rises to 636 feet. Portland's newest bridge in the downtown area, Tilikum Crossing, opened in 2015 and is the first new bridge to span the Willamette in Portland since the 1973 opening of the double-decker Fremont Bridge.During World War II, it housed an "assembly center" from which up to 3,676 people of Japanese descent were dispatched on concentration camps in the heartland.The Pacific International Livestock Exposition operated from May through September 10, 1942 processing people from the city, northern Oregon, and central Washington.Johns Bridge, a Gothic revival suspension bridge built in 1931, to the north. Jackson Memorial Bridge and the Interstate Bridge provide access from Portland across the Columbia River into Washington state.
The Willamette River runs through the center of the city, while Mount Tabor (center) rises on the city's east side. Helens (left) and Mount Hood (right center) are visible from many places in the city.
At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering.
After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate.
Portland is located 60 miles east of the Pacific Ocean at the northern end of Oregon's most populated region, the Willamette Valley.
Downtown Portland straddles the banks of the Willamette River, which flows north through the city center and consequently separates the east and west neighborhoods of the city.
Named after Portland, Maine, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail.