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Magistrates such as procurators fiscal and quaestors investigated crimes.
One of the oldest, "cop", has largely lost its slang connotations and become a common colloquial term used both by the public and police officers to refer to their profession.The military policing responsibilities of the Marshal of France were delegated to the Marshal's provost, whose force was known as the Marshalcy because its authority ultimately derived from the Marshal.The marshalcy dates back to the Hundred Years' War, and some historians trace it back to the early 12th century.The word police is most universal and can be seen in many non-English speaking countries.As police are often interacting with individuals, slang terms are numerous.In Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves (the , "rod-bearers") was used to guard public meetings to keep order and for crowd control, and also assisted with dealing with criminals, handling prisoners, and making arrests.
Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves.
In the Roman empire, the army, rather than a dedicated police organization, provided security.
Local watchmen were hired by cities to provide some extra security.
As medieval Spanish kings often could not offer adequate protection, protective municipal leagues began to emerge in the twelfth century against banditry and other rural criminals, and against the lawless nobility or to support one or another claimant to a crown.
These organizations were intended to be temporary, but became a long-standing fixture of Spain.
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